Phonation, the production of vocal sounds, is a function of the larynx. Sounds are then modulated as they pass through the nasopharynx and mouth, which act as resonators. Articulation consists of contractions of the pharynx, palate, tongue, and lips, which alter the vocal sounds. Hoarseness and dysphonia  refer to altered phonation, whereas dysarthria consists of defective articulation. Vowels are of laryngeal origin, whereas most consonants  are formed during articulation. The consonants m b, and p are labial, I and t are lingual, and nk and ng are guttural (pharynx and soft palate). Test phrases or rapid repetition of lingual, labial, and guttural consonants can bring out the particular abnormality (eg, Ia-la-la, me-me-me, k-k-k).



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